The most common types of distortions and negative thinking patterns conceptualized by Beck (1976) have been summarized in the literature (Cormier, Nurius, & Osborn, 2009; Leahy & Holland, 2000; Walsh, 2006) and are as follows:
[Whole Class Activity] Discuss each of the thinking errors, what they mean and possible examples of them. Can also look at what the opposite is that you would be trying to encourage in clients.
- All or nothing thinking
- Discounting positives
- Emotional reasoning
- Inability to disconfirm: blocking ideas that don’t confirm beliefs
- Judgment focus: perception of self / others is based on assessment (focused on quality not description)
- Jumping to conclusions
- Mind reading
- Negative mental filtering: singling out bad events and ignoring positives
- Overgeneralization or globalization
- Personalizing: Taking on more responsibility for things then somebody has (i.e. role or actions made it happen)
- Regret orientation: focused on the past.
- “Should” statements: self failures
- Unfair comparisons
- What ifs
[Small Group Activity] Share with a partner about some of the thinking distortions that are present in the media and then some that you have to some degree or the opposite of those.